Soutien à la recherche et concours Lauréat.e.s du concours Soutien à la publication 2020-2021

 

Deschenaux Julie (UQAM) et al. : "Déterminants associés à l'intention du personnel enseignant d'enseigner l'éducation à la sexualité". 
Une publication soutenue par le RRSPQ (central).

Résumé : Le rôle du personnel enseignant dans l’implantation d’un curriculum d’éducation à la sexualité (ÉS) au primaire et secondaire est crucial. Les études s’intéressent aux déterminants de leur intention de faire de l’ÉS, mais ne prennent pas en considération la spécificité de l’action et du contexte, c’est-à-dire les multiples rôles qu’ils peuvent jouer. L’enseignant peut participer à la réalisation de l’ÉS en a) l’enseignant lui-même aux élèves, b) enseignant en tandem, c) accueillant dans sa classe un expert pour que ce dernier l’anime auprès de ses élèves. Le but de cette étude est d’étudier les déterminants psychosociaux de l’intention du personnel enseignant à réaliser l’ÉS selon l’un ou l’autre de ces rôles à leur portée. Méthode. Le cadre théorique des changements de comportement à la santé de Godin (2005) – une version intégrée et compréhensive du cadre théorique du comportement planifié de Ajzen, des comportements interpersonnels de Triandis et de la théorie sociale cognitive de Banduras - a été utilisé pour mesurer les intentions du personnel enseignant et leurs déterminants à faire de l’ÉS. Un questionnaire en ligne d’environ 45 minutes a été envoyé au personnel enseignant d’un centre de service scolaire en banlieue montréalaise. Des analyses de régression logistiques hiérarchiques ont été réalisées afin d’évaluer la relation entre les variables indépendantes (déterminants de l’intention) et l’intention d’enseigner soi-même l’éducation à la sexualité, de l’enseigner en tandem ou d’accueillir un expert. Résultats. Un total de 295 enseignants de 51 écoles primaires et 12 écoles secondaires a été retenu pour les analyses. Près de 40% (39,9 %) des participants à l’étude ont une intention favorable d’enseigner l’éducation à la sexualité eux-mêmes à leurs élèves, 36,2 % en enseignant en tandem et 76,5 % en accueillant un expert. Les principaux prédicteurs de l’intention ont été respectivement : a) pour le modèle d'enseigner soi-même l'ÉS (R2=58,2): un sentiment d’autoefficacité en éducation à la santé plus élevé (OR=7,11; p<0,001), une norme morale plus élevée à l'égard de l'enseignement de l'ÉS (OR=5,40; p<0,001), une norme descriptive plus forte (OR=3,45; p<0,01), une aisance à enseigner l’ÉS plus élevée (OR=3.00; p<0,01), avoir enseigné l’ÉS l’an passé (OR=2,94; p<0.01) et un plus jeune âge (OR=0,93; p<0,001); b) pour le modèle d'enseigner en tandem l'ES (R2=45,1): une norme morale plus élevée (OR=7,04; p<0.001), un sentiment de compétences à travailler en partenariat plus fort (OR=1,33; p<0,05), un plus jeune âge (OR=0,95, p<0,001) c) pour le modèle d'accueillir dans sa classe des experts (R2=54,6): une norme morale plus élevée (OR=3,53; p<0,001), davantage de regret anticipé (OR=2,75; p<0,01) et une norme descriptive plus forte (OR=2,59; p<0,01). Conclusion. Les résultats démontrent que les déterminants de l’intention des enseignants sont relativement distincts selon qu’ils prennent la décision d’enseigner eux-mêmes l’ÉS à leurs élèves, qu’ils co-enseignent ou qu’ils accueillent des experts dans leur classe. L’étude suggère en outre que des stratégies différenciées et complémentaires devraient être mises en place par les écoles pour optimiser l’implantation d’un curriculum d’éducation à la sexualité. 

 

Gagnon France (TELUQ) et al. : "Le système de santé et des services sociaux au Québec. Santé des populations et territorialité". (Titre provisoire)
Une publication soutenue par le RRSPQ (central).

Résumé : Cet ouvrage est une initiative conjointe du RRSPQ et du RISUQ. Des chercheurs en provenance d’une dizaine d’universités et de disciplines variées y collaborent. L’analyse du système de santé et des services sociaux au Québec comme déterminant de la santé, et ce, dans une perspective de santé des populations, y est proposé comme fil conducteur. L’objectif est d’apporter un éclairage sur les différentes réalités de l’organisation des soins et des services, des pratiques professionnelles et de problèmes récurrents et émergents sur l'ensemble du territoire, et ce dans une perspective contemporaine, critique et interdisciplinaire. Le caractère distinctif de cet ouvrage repose sur la prise en compte des domaines de la santé, des services sociaux et de santé publique afin de rendre compte de la complexité à laquelle font face les acteurs des différents paliers sur l'ensemble du territoire. Construit en trois parties, cet ouvrage a d’abord comme ambition de traiter de l’orientation des réformes des systèmes de santé d’ici et d'ailleurs et d’examiner les grands paramètres qui balisent l’organisation des services de santé et des services sociaux en contexte québécois (partie I). Puis, il vise à poser un regard contemporain sur les pratiques professionnelles telles qu’elles s’exercent dans le système de la santé et de services sociaux au Québec afin de permettre aux acteurs sur le terrain de développer un esprit critique sur les transformations en cours et leurs conséquences (partie II). Enfin, l’organisation de la santé publique et divers problèmes qui mettent en cause la santé des populations seront abordés de manière plus spécifique. La récente pandémie de la COVID-19 a remis de l’avant le rôle de la santé publique, il reste à voir si cette crise sera porteuse d’une évolution de paradigme dans la manière de penser notre système de santé et des services sociaux (partie III).  

 

Gagnon Karine (USherbrooke) et al. : "Attendant’s experience with the Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC)". 
Une publication soutenue par l'axe Politiques publiques et santé des population

Abstract : To promote healthy aging, the social participation needs of older adults must be better met. Previous studies have shown the benefits of the Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC), but few explored its influence on attendants. The APIC is weekly meetings of three hours, conducted over a period of six months during which the older adults are assisted by trained attendants from the community to plan or carry out significant social participation activities in the community. This study explored the assistance experience of attendants in providing the APIC to older adults with disabilities. A qualitative design inspired by a phenomenological approach was used with six female attendants who participated in individual interviews. The APIC attendants felt useful, developed meaningful relationships with their older adults, and improved their self-knowledge. Attendants had the opportunity to reflect on their lives and self-aging. They contributed to older adults’ functional independence, motivation, and participation in social activities. Attendants encountered challenges related to withdrawn behavior in older adults, such as refusing to participate in activities. Considering the identified benefits of the APIC for attendants, further studies should explore personalized assistance to preserve older adults’ health. 

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Merry Lisa (UdeM) et al. : "Challenges, coping strategies and interventions for foreign-born students studying in an academic nursing program in a Western country: A scoping review using a gender lens".
Une publication soutenue par le RRSPQ (central).

Abstract - Objective: The purpose of this scoping review was to map the literature on the challenges, coping responses and supportive interventions for international and migrant students in academic nursing programs in major host countries, with a gender lens. Methods: We searched 10 databases to identify literature reporting on the challenges, coping responses and/or supportive interventions for international and migrant nursing students in college or university programs in Canada, the United-States, Australia, New Zealand or a European country. We included peer-reviewed research (any design), discussion papers and literature reviews. English, French and Spanish publications were considered and no time restrictions were applied. Drawing from existing frameworks, we critically assessed each paper and extracted information related to gender. Results: 114 English publications were included. Generally, the literature mostly focused on international students and migration history/status and length of time in country were not considered with regards to challenges, coping or interventions. Females and males, respectively, were included in 69% and 59% of studies with student participants, while those students who identify as other genders were not named or identified in any of the research. Several papers suggest that foreign-born nursing students face challenges associated with different cultural roles, norms and expectations for men and women. Other challenges included differential treatment due to wearing a hijab and being a ‘foreign-born male nurse’, and nursing being viewed as a feminine, low-status profession. Only two strategies, accessing support from family and other student mothers, used by female students to cope with challenges, were identified. Supportive interventions considering gender were also limited; these included matching students with support services personnel by sex, involving male family members in admission and orientation processes, and using patient simulation as a method to prepare students for care-provision of patients of the opposite-sex. Conclusion:  Future work on the challenges, coping responses and supportive interventions for international and migrant nursing students with a gender lens, is warranted.  An intersectionality-based approach, that considers the migration context, would also be worthwhile. 

 
Pena Gralle Ana Paula (ULaval) et al. : "Validation of case definitions of depression derived from administrative data against the CIDI-SF as reference standard: results from the PROspective Québec (PROQ) study". 

Une publication soutenue par le RRSPQ (central).

Abstract : Background: Administrative data have several advantages over questionnaire and interview data to identify cases of depression: they are usually inexpensive, available for a long period of time and are less subject to recall bias and differential classification errors. However, the validity of administrative data in the correct identification of depression has not yet been studied in healthy populations. The present study aimed to 1) evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of administrative cases of depression using the validated Composite International Diagnostic Interview – Short Form (CIDI-SF) as reference standard and 2) compare the known-groups validity between administrative and CIDI-SF cases of depression. Methods: The 5487 participants seen at the last wave (2015-2018) of the PROQ cohort had CIDI-SF questionnaire data linked to hospitalization and medical reimbursement data provided by the provincial universal healthcare provider and coded using the International Classification of Disease. We analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of several case definitions of depression from this administrative data. Their association with known predictors of depression was estimated using robust Poisson regression models. Results: Administrative cases of depression showed high specificity (>97%), low sensitivity (16-23%), and low agreement (Cohen’s kappa of 0.19-0.21) compared with the CIDI-SF. These results were consistent over strata of sex, age and education level and with varying case definitions. In known-groups analysis, the administrative cases of depression were comparable to that of CIDI-SF cases (RR for sex: 1.88 vs 2.05 respectively, age: 1.59 vs 1.46, education: 1.53 vs 1.30, psychological distress: 2.17 vs 2.50). Conclusion: In this large sample composed mainly of healthy individuals, administrative cases of depression captured a different subset of participants than did CIDI-SF cases. However, their known-groups validity in relation to risk factors for depression was similar to that of CIDI-SF cases. These results suggest that neither of these data sources is superior to the other in the context of large epidemiological studies aiming to identify and quantify risk factors for depression.

 

Sarmiento Ivàn (McGill University) et al. : "Causes of short birth interval (kunika) in Bauchi State, Nigeria: systematizing local knowledge with fuzzy cognitive mapping".
Une publication soutenue par le RRSPQ (central).

Abstract : Background Short birth intervals, defined by the World Health Organization as less than 33 months, may damage the health and wellbeing of children, mothers, and their families. People in northern Nigeria recognise many adverse effects of short birth interval (kunika in the Hausa language) but it remains common. We used fuzzy cognitive mapping to systematize local knowledge of causes of kunika to inform the co-design of culturally safe strategies to address it. Methods Male and female groups in twelve communities built 48 maps of causes and protective factors for kunika, and government officers from the Local Government Area (LGA) and State made four maps. Each map showed causes of kunika or no-kunika, with arrows showing relationships with the outcome and between causes. Participants assigned weights for the perceived strength of relationships between 5 (strongest) and 1 (weakest). We combined maps for each group: men, women, and government officers. Fuzzy transitive closure calculated the maximum influence of each factor on the outcome, taking account of all relationships in the map. To condense the maps, we grouped individual factors into broader categories and calculated the cumulative net influence of each category. We made further summarised maps and presented these to the community mapping groups to review. Results The community maps identified frequent sex, not using modern or traditional contraception, and family dynamics (such as competition between wives) as the most influential causes of kunika. Women identified forced sex and men highlighted lack of awareness about contraception and fear of side effects as important causes of kunika. Lack of male involvement featured in women’s maps of causes and in the maps from LGA and State levels. Maps of protective factors largely mirrored those of the causes. Community groups readily appreciated and approved the summary maps resulting from the analysis. Conclusions The maps showed how kunika results from a complex network of interacting factors, with culture-specific dynamics. Simply promoting contraception alone is unlikely to be enough to reduce kunika. Outputs from transitive closure analysis can be made accessible to ordinary stakeholders, allowing their meaningful participation in interpretation and use of the findings.

 
Spagnolo Jessica (USherbrooke) et al. : "Centralized access points for processing requests to specialized health services: Exploring their implementation and underlying mechanisms in three Quebec regions".

Une publication soutenue par le RRSPQ (central).

Abstract : In 2016, Quebec implemented a program to increase access to specialized health services (the Programme Accès prioritaire aux soins spécialisés (APSS) - Centres de répartition des demandes de services (CRDS)). It includes regional and centralized access points for processing requests to such services via primary care. Variability in the conceived program’s implementation will be explored in our article to inform adjustments in its design and to better support its use by providers. Our paper specifically aims to: 1) present the logic models of APSS-CRDS programs in three Quebec regions; 2) glean similarities and differences in the presented models; and 3) explain these similarities and differences using contextual factors comparable or unique to the study regions. We relied on a multiple case study design to assess the program’s implementation in three Quebec regions. Semi-structured interviews with health administrators working in the study regions are being analysed thematically using a deductive and inductive approach. Results highlight the program’s regional variability with regards to its structure, human resources involved in its implementation, supports offered to providers to facilitate its use, techniques for monitoring use, mechanisms for feedback relayed to providers/patients, and procedures encouraging specialists to provide their time slots to the APSS-CRDS. These findings are the basis of logic models according to Mitchell & Lewis' (2003) framework. Contextual factors (facilitators and barriers) influencing the implementation of the program are assessed using Chaudoir and colleagues' (2013) framework. Findings are useful to inform Quebec health administrators, decision-makers, and policy-makers (for example, the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services) on the potential impact variability may have on the program’s anticipated results. Findings may also inform other Canadian stakeholders should similar regional and centralized access points to increase timely and appropriate access to specialized health services via primary care be implemented, currently unavailable in Canada.

 
van der Wal Ran (McGill University) et al. : "HIV-sensitive promotive social protection programs for vulnerable young women in East and Southern Africa: A systematic mixed studies review".

Une publication soutenue par le RRSPQ (central).

Abstract : Introduction: Promotive HIV-sensitive social protection programs leverage socioeconomic approaches to address the intersection of HIV, poverty and gender inequality by enhancing income and capabilities. We aimed to explore their impact on socioeconomic empowerment and HIV prevention among vulnerable young women (15-29 years; unemployed and out-of-school) in East and Southern Africa, a key population for HIV infection. Methods: We conducted a systematic mixed studies review focusing on work skills training, microfinance, employment support. We searched published and grey literature (01/2005-10/2019; English/French) in MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and databases of relevant international organizations. We used Popay’s narrative synthesis method and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool for quality appraisal. Results: We screened 3870 titles and abstracts and 188 full-text papers to retain 18 papers, representing 12 projects. All 12 projects offered work skills training to improve life and business skills. Six offered formal (vocational n=2) or informal (income-generating activity n=5) livelihood training. Eleven offered microfinance including microgrants (n=7), microcredit (n=6), and savings (n=4). One project offered employment services in the form of apprenticeships. In general, life and business skills, microgrants and savings contributed to socioeconomic empowerment and improved HIV-related outcomes. Most livelihood training contributed to socioeconomic empowerment, but only two projects showed improved HIV-related outcomes. Microcredit contributed little to either outcome. Promotive programs were effective when (i) sensitive to age, interests and economic vulnerability; (ii) addressing hard and soft skills to increase entrepreneurial success and enable application of HIV prevention measures; and (iii) adapted to local implementation contexts, to leverage local resources and markets. Conclusion: A wide variety of HIV-sensitive promotive social protection programs were leveraged for socioeconomic empowerment and HIV prevention, but employment support received little attention in this literature. To be effective, promotive social protection programs should be designed around vulnerable young women’s interests and needs and local implementation contexts.   

 

Viscogliosi Chantal (USherbrooke) et al. : "Associations between intergenerational solidarity of Indigenous elders and the health of members from their communities outside reserves: results from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples".
Une publication soutenue par l'axe Santé mentale des populations.

Abstract : Objective By transmitting knowledge, values and culture, hence fostering identity-building through intergenerational solidarity, elders play an important role in Indigenous communities. To develop wellness in community members, an approach focussing on Indigenous strengh could better meet Indigenous values and perception of wellness.This research aimed to investigate the associations between intergenerational solidarity of Indigenous elders and mental health of community members. Methods Using data from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2012 (n = 24 803 Indigenous people aged ≥ 6 years old living outside from reserve), secondary analysis using logistic regressions were carried out to verify the associations between intergenerational solidarity (proxied as perceived support from and time spent with an elder) and mental health of community members, controlling for their age as well as social and material deprivation of the community. Results About 13 and 40% of the respondents respectively reported receiving support from and spending time with an elder. Overall, respondents not receiving support from an elder were more likely to have mood disorder (OR=1.37, p=0.03), whereas those not spending time with an elder were more likely to have suicidal thoughts (OR=1.35, p=0.05). More specifically, men not reporting support from or not spending time with an elder were more likely to have mood disorder (OR=1.76, p=0.000 and OR=1.48, p=0.01, respectively). Women that did not had support from nor spent time with an elder were respectively more likely to have suicidal thoughts (OR=1.52, p=0.04) and attempted suicide (OR=2.66, p=0.04). Conclusion Intergenerational solidarity was shown to be associated with better mental health conditions of Indigenous people living off reserve. To achieve higher mental health and well-being in Indigenous populations, policies and practices should promote intergenerational solidarity.